Ultraviolet radiation

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Ultraviolet water purification is used for disinfection and cleaning, that is to eliminate viruses, bacteria and other pathogens. The chemical composition does not change.

Sterilizers are a lamp, made in the case of stainless steel. Disinfecting effect of UV radiation (wavelength 250-270 nm) is based on the irreversible damage of DNA and RNA of microorganisms by photochemical effects of radiant energy.

Subtypes
Electromagnetic pektr ultraviolet izlucheniyas can be variously divided into subgroups. ISO standard to determine the solar radiation (ISO-DIS-21348) [1] gives the following definition:

Name Abbreviation wavelength in nanometers amount of energy per photon

Middle NUV 400 nm - 300 nm 3.10 - 4.13 eV
Average MUV 300 nm - 200 nm 4.13 - 6.20 eV
Far FUV 200 nm - 122 nm 6.20 - 2.10 eV
Extreme EUV, XUV 121 nm - 10 nm 10.2 - 124 eV
Ultraviolet A UVA wavelength range 400 nm - 315 nm 3.10 - 3.94 eV
Ultraviolet B, medium wave UVB 315 nm - 280 nm 3.94 - 4.43 eV
Ultraviolet C, short-wavelength UVC 280 nm - 100 nm 4.43 - 4.12 eV
Near ultraviolet range is often referred to as "black light" because it is not recognized by the human eye, but upon reflection from some of the material passes into the range of the visible light.

For long-range and extreme often uses the term "vacuum» (VUV), in view of the fact that the waves that range greatly absorbed by the atmosphere of the Earth.
Effects on human health

Biological effects of ultraviolet radiation in three spectral regions are quite different, so biologists sometimes singled out as most important in their work, the following ranges:

Buy equipment for UV water treatment
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Corporation "Agrico" designs, manufactures and installs water treatment systems for over 10 years. We employ highly qualified specialists. In the production of equipment for UV water treatment TCI is strict quality control throughout the manufacturing process. Our equipment is successfully used in many cities of Russia and abroad. You can buy a sterilizer in our company at a very good price today.

Effect on the skin

Exposure to ultraviolet radiation on the skin, exceeding the natural protective ability of the skin to tan, resulting in burns.
Prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation can contribute to the development of melanoma and premature aging.
Effect on the retina of the eye

Ultraviolet radiation is almost imperceptible to the human eye, but the intense irradiation is typically radiation injury (burn the retina). Soft ultraviolet (300-380 nm) is perceived as a weak retina purple or gray-blue light, but almost completely confined lens, especially in middle-aged and elderly. Patients implanted with an artificial lens earlier models, began to see ultraviolet light, modern designs of artificial lens ultraviolet not miss.

Sources of ultraviolet

Natural sources
The main source of UV radiation on Earth - the sun. The ratio of the intensity of UV-A and UV-B, the total amount of ultraviolet rays reaching the Earth's surface depends on the following factors:

the concentration of atmospheric ozone above the Earth's surface

the height of the sun above the horizon
the height above sea level

of atmospheric dispersion
the state of the cloud cover
on the extent of the reflection of UV rays from the surface

Two UV fluorescent bulbs, both lamps emit a "long wave", the length of which is in the range of 350 to 370 nm
Ultraviolet water purification: what is it?
Today, ultraviolet water treatment is widely used for disinfection, disinfection and softening. In water treatment systems for the elimination of nutrients in the water are used wavelengths from 200 to 400 nm. Maximum destructive effect on pathogens has UV range from 250 to 270 nm. As well you can use GWU - Ultraviolet disinfection of water that runs at other wavelengths.

Ultraviolet water treatment: how is it done?
Our staff is often used for the installation of ultraviolet water treatment for the destruction of nutrients in the water. Often biogenic pollutants in the water indicate the presence of organic compounds in the water as food for bacteria and microorganisms. It is in such water bacteria grow best. We also do installation of equipment for the treatment of water from organic impurities.
Erythemic lamps were developed in the 60's of last century to compensate for "UV insufficiency" of natural radiation and, in particular, the intensification of the process of the photochemical synthesis of vitamin D3 in human skin ("antirahitnoe action"). In 70-80 years erythemic LL except medical facilities were used in special "fotariyah" (for example, miners and mine workers), in separate OU public and industrial buildings in the North, as well as exposure of young farm animals.

LE30 spectrum is radically different from sunlight, onto the domain account for a large part of the radiation in the UV, a wavelength? 300nm, which is naturally non-existent, can reach 20% of UV radiation. Having a good "antirahitnym action," actinic light bulbs with a maximum in the range of 305-315 nm has both strong damaging effect on the conjunctiva (the mucous membrane of the eye). Note that in the nomenclature of the Philips UV AI present LL type TL12 with extremely close to LE30 spectral characteristics, which, along with a "harder" UV LL type TL01 used in medicine to treat photodermatosis. Range of existing UV AI used in phototherapy units, large enough, along with the aforementioned UV LL, this lamp type DPT or special IPF foreign production, but with mandatory filtering UVC radiation and limiting the proportion of UVB or by doping silica, or by special filters that come with the irradiator.


Terms of ultraviolet water purification.
UV water treatment can be used in the following conditions:
- Turbidity - less than 2 mg / L
- Color - no more than 20 degrees platinum-cobalt scale;
- Iron (Fe) - not more than 0.3 mg / l (SanPiN 2.1.4.1074-01) and 1 mg / l
- If the index - no more than 10,000 pcs. / L.

Due to the fact that the SAD is, undoubtedly, one of the manifestations of the "solar failure" is imminent return of interest in the so-called tubes of "full spectrum" fairly accurately reproduces the spectrum of natural light not only visible but also in the UV region. A number of foreign companies included LL full spectrum in their range, for example, by Osram and Radium produce similar UV AI capacity of 18, 36 and 58 W under the names, respectively, «Biolux» and «Biosun», the spectral characteristics are virtually identical. These lamps are not naturally possess "antirahitnym effect", but help to eliminate the people of adverse syndromes associated with poor health in the autumn and winter, and can also be used as a preventive measure in the Shelter schools, nurseries, businesses and institutions to compensate " light starvation. " It should be recalled that the LL "full spectrum" compared c LL color LB have light output by about 30%, which will inevitably lead to an increase in energy and capital costs in the lighting-irradiation facility. Design and operation of such facilities should take into account the requirements of the standard CTES 009 / E: 2002 "photobiological safety of lamps and lamp systems."

For a comprehensive definition of contamination inputs pathogens used sanitary measure on E. coli. The content of E. coli always indicates the presence of other microorganisms in the water and their quantities. According to the number of E. coli in water is calculated power and the number of lamps, with the turbidity of the water and the gradual attenuation of the radiation in the muddy water. Also contributes obezzhelezovaniyu and water.

Mercury-quartz lamp
Fluorescent lamps "daylight" (have a small component of the UV spectrum of mercury)
Excilamp
Light-emitting diode
Laser sources
There are a number of lasers operating in the ultraviolet. The laser produces coherent light of high intensity. However, the region is difficult for UV laser generation, so there is no equally powerful sources, both in the visible and infrared ranges. Ultraviolet lasers are used in macc spectrometry, laser microdissection, biotechnology and other scientific studies.

The active medium in ultraviolet lasers can be used either gases (eg, argon laser, nitrogen laser [and others), inert gases, special crystals, organic scintillators, or free electrons propagating through the undulator.

In 2010, was first shown on the free-electron laser, which generates coherent photons with an energy of 10 eV (corresponding wavelength - 124 nm), that is in the range of vacuum ultraviolet.

Scope

Black light

On credit cards VISA illuminated UV rays at a picture of a dove hovering black light lamp - a lamp that emits mainly in the far ultraviolet region of the spectrum (the range of UVA) and gives very little visible light.
To protect documents from counterfeiting them often equipped with ultraviolet markings that are visible only under ultraviolet light. Most passports and banknotes of different countries contain security features in the form of paint or filaments glowing in the ultraviolet.
Ultraviolet radiation is given by black light bulbs, is quite soft and has the least serious adverse effect on human health. However, when using these lamps in a dark room, there is some risk associated with low light in the visible spectrum. This is due to the fact that the pupil dilates in the dark and relatively large part of the radiation falls freely onto the retina.

Disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) radiation
Sterilization of air and solid surfaces
UV lamp is used for sterilization in the laboratory

UV lamps are used for sterilization (disinfection) of water, air and surfaces in all spheres of human activity. The most common low-pressure lamps have 86% of the radiation at a wavelength of 254 nm, which agrees well with the peak germicidal effectiveness curve (ie, the efficiency of absorption of ultraviolet DNA molecules). This peak is located in the emission wavelength is 254 nm, which has the greatest effect on the DNA, but natural substances (eg, water) delayed penetration of UV.

Germicidal UV radiation at these wavelengths causes dimerization of thymine in DNA molecules. The accumulation of these changes in the DNA of microorganisms leads to a slowdown in their reproduction and extinction.

UV treatment of water, air, and surface does not have a prolonged effect. Advantage of this feature is that eliminates the harmful effects on humans and animals. In the case of wastewater treatment ponds UV flora does not suffer from discharges, such as when you reset the water treated with chlorine, continues to destroy lives long after use in wastewater treatment plants.

- Universal destruction of pathogenic organisms for disinfection - from the simplest to the spores and vegetative forms of bacteria - The absence of changes in the composition and properties of water
- There is no cost to the organization of the security, maintenance, distribution and storage of reagent.

- No staff.
For ultraviolet water purification mercury lamp, high and low pressure. Both types of lights have their advantages and disadvantages, and comparative characteristics of which are presented in the table.

Disinfection of drinking water

Disinfection by chlorination method in combination, as a rule, ozonation or ultraviolet disinfection (UV) radiation. Disinfection by ultraviolet (UV) radiation - a safe, economical and efficient method of disinfection. Neither ozonation or ultraviolet radiation does not have a bactericidal-effect, so they must not be used as stand-alone tools for water disinfection treatment of water for drinking water, for swimming pools. Ozonipovanie and ultraviolet obezzarazhivanie used as additional methods of disinfection, together with chlorination, increase efficiency and reduce the amount of chlorine added chlorinated chemicals.

Principle of operation of UV radiation. UV disinfection is performed by irradiation of microorganisms in the water with UV radiation specific intensity (wide wavelength for the complete destruction of microorganisms is 260.5 nm) for a period of time. As a result of such exposure microorganisms "microbiological" die as they lose their ability to reproduce. UV radiation in the wavelength range of about 254 nm is well penetrates the cell wall of water and waterborne microorganisms and absorbed by the DNA of microorganisms, causing a breach of its structure. As a result, stops the reproduction of microorganisms. It should be noted that this mechanism applies to all living cells of the body as a whole, that this is due to the danger of hard ultraviolet.

Although the effectiveness of water disinfection UV treatment several times lower than ozonation, to date, the use of UV radiation - one of the most effective and safe way to disinfect water in cases where the volume of water to be treated is small.

Currently developing mills in regions lacking clean drinking water disinfection method introduced by sunlight (SODIS), in which the main role in water purification from microorganisms plays ultraviolet component of solar radiation.

Chemical analysis

UV - spectrometry

UV spectrophotometry is based on irradiation of a substance monochromatic UV radiation whose wavelength varies with time. Substance in varying degrees absorbs UV radiation of different wavelengths. Graph, the vertical axis is the number of a missed or delayed reflected radiation, and on the horizontal axis - the wavelength range of forms. The spectra are unique for each substance based on this identification of individual compounds in the mixture, as well as their quantitative measurement.

Analysis of minerals

Many minerals contain substances which, when illuminated by ultraviolet radiation begins to emit visible light. Each impurity shines in its own way, which allows the character to determine the composition of the glow of the mineral. A. Malakhov in his book, "Entertaining the geology" (Wiley, "Young Guard", 1969. 240) describes this as follows: "An unusual cause of minerals glow and cathode, and ultraviolet and X-rays. In the world of dead stone light up and shine most brightly those minerals which, once in the area of ??ultraviolet light, talk about the smallest impurities uranium and manganese that are included in the breed. Strange "unearthly" color flash and many other minerals, containing no additives. I spent the whole day in the lab, where he observed the luminescence of minerals. Plain white calcite brighten miraculously influenced by different light sources. Cathode rays were doing crystal ruby, it lights up in the ultraviolet purple-red tones. Two minerals - fluorite and zircon - no differences in X-rays. Both were green. But it was necessary to connect the cathode light, like getting purple fluorite, and zircon - lemon-yellow. ". .

 
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